Thursday, July 24, 2014

238 Lions Died in Gir Forest in Five Years, Says Congress MLA

238 Lions Died in Gir Forest in Five Years, Says Congress MLA

Alleging carelessness in protecting Asiatic lions by the Gujarat State Forest Department, Congress MLA from Visavadar, Harshad Ribadiya claimed in Gandhinagar yesterday that 238 lions had died during the last five years.

During his speech on budgetary allocations to the Gujarat State Forest Department in the Gujarat Assembly yesterday, Mr Ribadiya claimed, "As per government figures, 411 lions live in the Gir forest. However, the census was carried out five years ago. During that period, almost 238 lions died. Thus, only 173 lions remain today. If you (forest department) do not take steps to protect lions, these 173 lions would also vanish within the next five years."

However, forest department officials said that natural deaths of lions take place as per their lifecycle of 15 years, and births of new cubs replace the old generation. So against the number of deaths, almost a similar number of births are also recorded in the forest, they said.

According to the MLA, the Gujarat state government alloted Rs. 82.61 crore for protection of lions in its recent budget.

"If you divide that amount with 173 lions, then it can be said that the government would spend Rs. 47 lakh on each lion. But, what exactly did the forest department do? Are they going to feed lions so that they don't come outside the forest area in search of food?" asked Mr Ribadiya, who alleged that lions are left to fend for themselves.

"Lions do not find any animals, such as Neelgai (blue bull) and wild boars inside the forest area. Thus, they encroach into nearby villages and kill our cattle. I urge you to take necessary steps," Ribadiya said to prove his point.

Earlier, on July 11, the Gujarat government had admitted in the House that 66 Asiatic lions died within the last one year in and around the Gir forest.

Among these, 55 lions died a natural death and eight died in various other incidents, such as falling into open wells.

Gujarat Forest Minister Ganpat Vasava also admitted that three lions died after being run over by trains in different areas of Amreli district.

Sanctuary or Killing Fields? Four Asiatic Lions Died on Rail Tracks in India's Gir Reserve This Year

Sanctuary or Killing Fields? Four Asiatic Lions Died on Rail Tracks in India's Gir Reserve This Year

Unlike the African lion, there are only around 411 Asiatic lions left. Most are found in the Indian state of Gujarat.

Four lions, including cubs, from the Gir Sanctuary in the western Indian state of Gujarat have died in rail accidents this year. That may not look like a big figure unless seen in the context of census figures that put the number of Asiatic lions at a mere 411.

Indian Minister of State for Railways, Manoj Sinha, said that measures like restricting the speed of trains to 30 km per hour, cautious driving in the forest area and restricting train movements during night were some steps taken to protect the animals.

The railways had increased co-ordination with the forest department to inform railway locomotive drives about movements of lions in these areas, he said.

The deaths come as worrying news for the state government, which is fighting to retain its lions in the face of national plans to translocate them from Gir in Gujarat to Kuno Palpur sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh.

The latest census puts the number at 411, up from 359 in 2005.

But wildlife experts believe the lions have outgrown the Gir forest, and a single epidemic or calamity could wipe out the entire population. This was why the translocation plan was made almost a decade ago.

Kuno was chosen because of its size -- 3000 sq km -- and diverse prey base. Wildlife studies have shown that the prey count in Kuno is higher than that at Gir, according to experts. Around 24 villages were relocated in Kuno at considerable expense to make way for the lions.

But a petition filed in the supreme court early this year has again delayed the process. The petitioner contended that the court had been misguided on the status of lions in the state.

While the 2000 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) report had placed Asiatic Lions on the red list, describing them as critically endangered species, it has now moved out from the critically endangered list to the endangered list.

The IUCN report on the Asiatic Lions further noted how lion populations had not only stabilised but also extended beyond the Gir Forest across four regions of Gujarat.

Monday, July 21, 2014

Four Lions Died on Railway Tracks in Gir in 2014, Says Minister

Four Lions Died on Railway Tracks in Gir in 2014, Says Minister

In his reply to Rajya Sabha member Parimal Nathwani, Minister of State for Railways Manoj Sinha said that four lions, including cubs, died after being run over by trains passing through Gir Forest in Gujarat in 2014.

In a release issued in Ahmedabad on Sunday, Mr Nathwani said he was concerned about recurring deaths of lions and lion cubs on railway tracks in and around Gir forest.

The release stated that Mr Nathwani raised the question in Parliament recently on what the government did to protect these rare animals.

In his reply to Mr Nathwani, Mr Sinha said no lion died on railway tracks in 2011 and 2013, while in 2012, one such incident had taken place.

However, the minister admitted that four deaths of lions were registered in the current year until June on the railway line passing outside the notified area of Gir forest.

As per the release issued by Mr Nathwani, the minister also added that no such incident took place on the metre gauge line from Visavadar to Talala junction passing through notified Gir forest.

"The minister informed that measures like restricting speed of trains to 30 km per hour, cautious driving in the forest area and no train movements during night time were the steps taken to protect the animals," the release said.

Mr Sinha said that to protect lions from dying on the broad gauge line, the railways had increased co-ordination with the forest department to inform railway locomotive drives about movements of lions in these areas, the release said.

What's in a name: Gir names its lions in a unique way

What's in a name: Gir names its lions in a unique way
The Times of India

Gabbar Singh was thrown out of its territory in Dhari last week after he killed two lion cubs. Gabbar, the lion, apparently did not like the cubs' interference when he was spending some intimate moments with their mother!

Gabbar, as the big cat was popularly known in the area, had become nomadic after it was driven out of its territory by another lion. It was now moving around in search of new territory where he could settle down after the humiliating defeat. It was named Gabbar as he had got into fights with 3-4 lions in a different territory before it killed the two cubs. Local villagers from Savarkundla phoned forest authorities to ensure that Gabbar was removed from their area.

The nomadic lion is not the only one to be identified by a unique name. Almost every pride is identified by a name. The forest officials, including the beat guards and trackers, have a tradition of giving interesting names to lions in Gir Sanctuary — Asia's only abode of lions. There is one Osama Bin Laden which is known for its fearsome demeanor and, of course, a Karan-Arjun — siblings who roam the forest together, always.

Earlier this year, a ceremony was held to name five cubs born to Laxmi, a lioness. "Many feel that the lions should not be named but the beat guards and trackers who are associated closely with the movement of the big cats, feel that naming them helps develop a certain intimacy with the lions and makes them feel that the animals are part of their own family," said Anshuman Sharma, deputy conservator of forest (DCF), Dhari range.

He said that the lions are also named according to their behavior. In Dhari range, there is an old lion which is named Bhagat (priest) because it has never hurt anyone nor even tried to capture territory. He is satisfied in his area and hence the trackers have named him Bhagat.

Similar feelings were echoed by DCF (Gir west), Kasuladev Ramesh, who said that an old lion which lives in the tourism zone is known as Mullah. He is so named because of his priest-like behavior. It hunts for food but it has never attacked any other lion or cubs.

Very frequently, a lion gets is name because of a particular physical condition. For example, 'Bandi' — she had lost her tail — was a famous lioness in the tourism zone. She was always identified by the beat guards as Bandi. Another one in Dhari was known as Langado because it limped.

Karan-Arjun: Two brothers in Mahuva are identified by the villagers of the area as Karan-Arjun. The reason is that the two are always seen together and even hunt together. The two males follow each other closely. Also, in looks they resemble each other and, hence, the villagers have named them Karan-Arjun. A forest officer said that whenever they return to a village, the villagers say, "Mere Karan Arjun aa gaye", (our Karan Arjun have come).

Atankwadi or Osama bin Laden: The two names are popular for those lions who harm big cats not only of their own pride but even from nearby areas. In Mityala, a lion was known as Atankwadi as he would frequently visit others' territories and attack the cubs and the big cats of other prides. These 'terrorists' among lions even attack young adult males of their own group. No wonder, the beat guards have given them such names.

Collared: This lioness has a radio collar put around her neck by scientists for research purpose. People in Liliya village call her 'Collared'. The love for Collared is so strong that people had once launched an agitation to get her back when she was caught in Gondal town after she had wandered there while out on a long walk. The forest department decided to cage the lioness and keep her in Sakarbaugh Zoo. But the people of Liliya launched an agitation and wrote letters to the forest department, forcing the authorities to release the lioness and send her to Liliya.

Roopsundari and Gulab: These names have been given to two female cubs who are beautiful to look at. While Gulab is an attraction for tourists in Sasan, Roopsundari can be seen moving around in villages in Dhari and Savarkundla.

Tofani Kanudo: One often finds this phrase — it is used for naughty people — written on the back of vehicles in Amreli and Jungadh. In the coastal areas in Rajula, beat guards have named a cub as Tofani Kanudo because the cub is very naughty and goes missing often, forcing forest authorities to launch search missions for him.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

Project to provide second home to Gir lions gets stuck yet again

Project to provide second home to Gir lions gets stuck yet again
The Freepress Journal

The proposal of relocation of Gujarat Lions to Palpur Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in Chambal has stuck once again.

Forest minister Gaurishankar Shejwar, replying to a question in the House on Thursday, said Supreme Court's technical committee, in its report, has pointed out that the area of the sanctuary area was insufficient for lions. Shejwar told the House that a plan to enhance sanctuary area has been prepared under which two villages namely, Baghcha and Jahangarh would be included in sanctuary area.

Shejwar said an amount of Rs 69 crore would be spent on the sanctuary. He said presently the government would spent Rs 30 crore and the same amount would be adjusted after getting funds from the Centre.

Shejwar said 24 villages were relocated initially and the remaining 2 villages would be relocated soon.

MLA Satyapal Singh Sikarwar alleged that as many as 1600 families have been relocated so far but none has been provided basic amenities. Shejwar, in his reply said the displaced families have been provided all facilities.

 He said delay has been caused in the matter as Gujarat government was reluctant to part with the lions and the matter was being dealt with by the Supreme Court.

 He further added that Lion project was launched in 1996 and a sum of Rs 49.07 crore has been spent on it. Shejwar also admitted that deadline of relocating Lions in Kuno could not be given as the matter is in the Supreme Court.

4 lion deaths on rail tracks

4 lion deaths on rail tracks
The Times of India

Four lions including cubs have been killed on the rail tracks in Gir Forest till June this year, the Rajya Sabha was informed on Friday.

In the current year, there have been four deaths of lions or lion cubs upto June 2014 on railway line passing outside notified area of Gir Reserve Forest, Minister of State for Railway Manoj Sinha said in a written reply.

There was no death of lions in 2011 and 2013 and there was only one death of a lion in 2012.

He said metre gauge (MG) line from Visavadar to Talala passes through notified Gir Forest on which there are no incidences of death of lions.

Sinha said several measures have been taken for the MG track passing through Gir Forest which include speed of trains is restricted to 30km per hour, no train operation during night and cautious drive in the forest area.

For broad gauge lines where incidents of lion deaths have occurred recently, he said measures like whistle boards have been provided at the locations advised by the Forest Department.

Information about the movement of lions is being shared by the Forest Department with the Railways and loco pilots are informed to be careful.

Friday, July 18, 2014

66 lions died in Gujarat last year; not a single one poached: Govt

66 lions died in Gujarat last year; not a single one poached: Govt
The Economic Times

Gujarat government today informed the state Legislative Assembly that 66 Asiatic lions from the Gir wildlife sanctuary and the surrounding areas died in the last one year, though not a single death occurred due to poaching.

During the question hour today, Congress MLA Punja Vansh sought details about the deaths of these felines in the state.

In his written reply, state Forest and Environment Minister Ganpat Vasava said a total of 66 Asiatic lions died in the past one year in Junagadh, Amreli and Gir Somnath districts.

Out of these, 55 lions died natural deaths, the minister said adding while three were run over by speeding trains in Amreli district, eight others died in various incidents, like falling into open well.

"Not a single lion was poached last year," Vasava claimed.

Out of the 66 dead, 21 were adult males, while 16 were lionesses and 29 cubs, he informed.

As per the 2011 census, there were total 411 lions in the Gir forest. "Out of these, around 114 lions are also found in the surrounding areas of Gir forest due to increase in their population," Vasava said in his reply.

The Forest Minister also listed some steps taken by government to stop unnatural deaths of lions, like construction of fence along the of railway tracks where these lions are usually spotted; constructing underpasses beneath these tracks to facilitate the felines to go across; conducting training for loco-pilots and guards and putting signboards at such rail routes to avoid/ minimise accidents.

The Gir forest national park and wildlife sanctuary, also known as Sasan-Gir, is known as the "last abode" of Asiatic lions. The park is located in the north-east from Somnath, south-east of Junagadh and south west of Amreli.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Madhya Pradesh CM directed to remove all hurdles in bringing lions from Gujarat

Madhya Pradesh CM directed to remove all hurdles in bringing lions from Gujarat

Chief Minister Shri Shivraj Singh Chouhan has directed to remove all hurdles in bringing lions from Gujarat to Kuno-Palanpur sanctuary so that work to rehabilitate lions in Madhya Pradesh can be started at the earliest. He directed to pay special attention to protection of vulture, Barahsingha and Son Chidiya for their survival. CM Shri Chouhan chaired 11th meeting of Madhya Pradesh State Wildlife Board here today.

The Chief Minister congratulated Kanha and Satpura tiger reserves for receiving awards from India Bio-diversity. Describing experiment of increasing number of tigers in Panna national park as unique, he lauded staff of Forest Department and project.

The Chief Minister directed to undertake large-scale publicity of harmful effects of painkilling medicine diclofenac on vultures and other birds. He said that publicity campaign in this connection should be taken up jointly by Forest, Animal Husbandry and Panchayats Departments. 

The Chief Minister directed to seek consent of re-settled families in the work of shifting of villages from tiger reserves in the state. He instructed to provide compensation from available funds of Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Regulation Authoriety (CAMPA). Lauding the vulture breeding centre at Kerwa in Bhopal by Government of India and Bombay Natural History Society, the Chief Minister said that it is must to save vultures for environment.

The Chief Minister made a special appeal to wildlife experts to chalk out scheme for management of increased population of Neelgai following reports about damage of crops by them in such a way that Neelgais remain safe and farmers' crops are also not damaged. The Chief Minister directed to chalk out a proposal for captive breeding of Son Chidiya as per wildlife experts' advice in Kuno-Palpur sanctuary.

The meeting discussed proposals for permission for development works within 10 kilometer radius of national parks and sanctuaries. The meeting decided to seek permission for setting up coal-based thermal power plant and construction of steel silo within 10 kilometer radius of Ratapani sanctuary from National Wildlife Board. It was decided to send proposal regarding laying of 765 KV single circuit transmission line within 10 kilometer radius of Singhori sanctuary.

Proposals were also discussed regarding laying of third rail line between Habibganj and Barkhera in Ratapani sanctuary, renovation of canal within limits of Singhori sanctuary, upgradation of Amdoh to Surai Dhaba road in Ratapani sanctuary, survey and upgradation of Balakot-Chirai-Manka road in Naurodehi sanctuary (Damoh), road construction from Dada Khirak to Tighara in Son Chidiya sanctuary in Ghatigaon (Gwalior), construction of approach roads under Mukhyamantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Beldara Talab minor irrigation project in Bagdara wildlife sanctuary in Singrauli, laying of additional Katni-Singrauli rail line in Sanjay Dubri sanctuary under Sanjay tiger reserve and laying underground sewer line in Madhya national park (Shivpuri).

Dhoopgarh, Mahadev, Chauragarh, Bada Mahadev and Nagdwari are major religious places in Pachmarhi under Satpura tiger reserve where fairs are held on Shivratri and Nagpanchami with participation of 15 to 20 lakh devotees. In view of devotees' convenience, the Chief Minister directed to send a proposal to National Wildlife Board to unreserve these areas for construction of public facilities. Forest Minister Dr. Gaurishankar Shejwar, Chief Secretary Shri Anthony de Sa, Prinicpal Secretary Forests Shri B.P. Singh, members of Wildlife Board and senior officers of concerning departments were present on the occasion. -

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Prepare to welcome lions at Palpur Kuno: CM

Prepare to welcome lions at Palpur Kuno: CM
Free Press

Chief minister Shivraj Singh Chauhan, addressing at the 11th meeting of Madhya Pradesh State Wild Life Board here on Tuesday, asked to remove all obstacles  in bringing lions from Gujarat to Kuno Palpur sanctuary. Chauhan instructed the officials to make special efforts to save vulture, deer and Great Indian Bustard.

Chauhan congratulated the forest department and the related staff for Kanha and Satpura Tiger Reserve getting India Bio-Diversity Award. He also praised the team work in increasing the number of tigers in Panna National Park.

Chauhan directed the officials of forests, animal husbandry and panchayat departments to launch a campaign to create awareness about harmful effects of pain-relieving medicines on vultures and other birds. He asked them to utilise the forum of special Gram Sabhas too for the campaign.

Chief Minister said that consent of families to be displaced from Tiger Reserve must also be taken. He appreciated the opening of a centre to save vultures at Kerwan, Bhopal by the Central Government and Bombay Natural History Society.

Chauhan urged wild life experts to prepare an action plan on safety of blue bulls and protection of crops.

 He also asked to prepare a proposal on captive breeding of Golden Bustard in Kuno Palpur sanctuary.

The proposals regarding permission for developmental works within 10 kilometres of national parks and sanctuaries were also discussed in the meeting. It was decided that the proposal of construction of captive thermal power plant in Ratapani sanctuary and construction of steel cyclo would be sent to National Wild Life Board for permission. It was also decided to send the proposal of permission of installing of 765 KV Single Circuit Transmission Power Line in Singhori sanctuary to the Central government. Forest minister Gaurishankar Shejwar, chief secretary Antony De Sa, principal secretary forest BP Singh, members of Wild Life Board and the senior officials of the concerned departments were present in the meeting.

2 lion cubs found dead near Rajula

2 lion cubs found dead near Rajula
The Times of India

Two lion cubs were found dead on the outskirts of Uchaiya village in Rajula taluka of Amreli on Monday.

"Preliminary report suggests that the cubs were about 15-day-old and they may have died 24 hours ago. It seems that two cubs were abandoned by their mother (lioness) and they died of hunger,'' veterinary doctor, Gir (East division) of Junagadh wildlife division, Hitesh Vamja said.

Sources said the lioness had given birth to two cubs about a fortnight ago near Uchaiya village. One of the cubs may have died 48 hours ago, while the second may have died 24 hours ago.

Forest officials are searching for the lioness that was not found in and around the area where cubs were found dead. The lion cubs can't hunt their prey themselves and are dependent on their mother for food.

Wildlife activists and nature lovers along with officials are concerned over the large number of lion deaths in the last five years. Sources said more 255 lions have died in the last five years in and around Gir wildlife sanctuary, the last abode of Asiatic lions in the world. According to the May 2010 census, there were 411 lions in the state. Experts say that many of the lions have died unnatural deaths.

Monday, July 07, 2014

GIR forecast could be cut

GIR forecast could be cut
Business World

THE BANGKO SENTRAL ng Pilipinas (BSP) could lower its gross international reserves (GIR) forecast for this year, a senior official said.

Reserves at $83.2B as of August

"Given the uncertainty in the market, we have to be conservative," central bank Deputy Governor Diwa C. Guinigundo said.

"We're still looking at the numbers given the new developments, like we've seen how capital flows have started coming back. We need to consider that in our projections."

Mr. Guinigundo said the central bank was likewise looking at the performance of the business process outsourcing and tourism sectors, noting that "we need to consider all that market information."

The central bank expects foreign exchange reserves to hit $88 billion this year, up from last year's $83.19 billion.

But reserves have hovered just near the $80-billion mark since the start of the year, which authorities mainly attributed to costs arising from the BSP's foreign exchange operations.

The central bank intervenes in the foreign exchange market from time to time to smoothen movements in the peso's value against the US dollar.

Based on latest data, the country's GIR stood at stood at $79.957 billion as of end-May, slightly higher than the previous month's revised $79.844 billion but lower than the $81.967 billion registered a year earlier.

Foreign exchange reserves are made up of central bank assets held in different currencies, gold, and special drawing rights with the IMF, as well as foreign exchange deposits of the government and other state-run firms.

It is an indicator of a country's capability to pay for imports and service foreign debts.

The central bank considers the level of reserves adequate if it can finance three months' worth of imports or cover 100% of the country's foreign liabilities.

The end-May GIR is enough to cover 11.1 months' worth of imports and is also equivalent to 6.8 times the country's short-term external debt based on original maturity and 4.8 times based on residual maturity. -- B. F. V. Roc

13 'unnatural' lion deaths within a year in Gujarat

13 'unnatural' lion deaths within a year in Gujarat
Zee News

The Gujarat government on Friday admitted that 13 Asiatic lions died due to unnatural causes within last one year in and around the famous Gir Wildlife sanctuary in the state.

During the question-answer session on the fourth day of budget session in the Gujarat Assembly, Congress MLA Jasu Barad asked the government to provide details about unnatural deaths of lions in the districts of Junagadh, Amreli and Gir-Somnath within one year.

Barad also asked the government to provide causes of their deaths and action taken to prevent such cases in future.

In his written reply, State Forest and Environment minister Ganpat Vasava said that a total of 13 Asiatic lions died within last one year in these three districts.

Among these, nine deaths were registered in Amreli, three in Junagadh and one in Gir-Somnath.

Out of nine deaths registered in Amreli region, four lions died after being run over by trains, two died after they fell in an open well and three lions died in road accidents.

In Junagadh, one lion died after falling in an open well and two died of electric shock. Similarly, one lion in Gir- Somnath region died of electrocution.

Vasava also listed some preventive measures taken by the government to stop such incidents. These measures include constructing fence on both sides of railway track where these lions are usually seen; constructing underpasses to allow movements on both sides of track; training for Loco pilots and guards, putting signboards on such railway routes etc.

As per the 2011 census, there are total 411 lions in the Gir forest, said Vasava while answering another question raised by Dhari MLA Nalin Kotadia. The next census will be carried out in 2015, he said.

Around 114 lions are also found in surrounding areas of Gir forest due to increase in their population, said Vasava in his written answer while replying to a query raised by Vejalpur MLA Kishorsinh Chauhan.

Chauhan wanted to know about lion habitats found outside Gir forest in Junagadh. In his answer, Vasava said lions are also found in Girnar, Matiyala and Paniya sanctuaries.

Apart from these sanctuaries, lions are also found in several parts of Gir-Somnath, Bhavnagar and Amreli districts, such as Una, Kodinar, Sutrapada, Savarkundla, Liliya and sea shore near Chhara. According to the minister, 114 lions were found to be living in these areas when last census was conducted.

Saturday, July 05, 2014

Accidents killed 13 lions in 1 year in Gujarat

Accidents killed 13 lions in 1 year in Gujarat
The Times of India
The state government has admitted that 13 lions died in accidents in Gir-Somnath, Amreli and Jungadh districts in the year beginning June 1, 2013. In a written reply to Talala MLA Jasubhai Barad's query, the state government stated that of the 13 lions which died, three were electrocuted, four were hit by a speeding train, three died in road accidents and the rest three died after falling in open wells.

It may be noted that two more lions died in train accidents in the month of June. With this, the toll of unnatural lion deaths in the last four months rose to six.

The government admitted that the maximum number of deaths had occurred in Amreli district where nine lions, including the four killed in train accidents, had met their end. According to the forest department, a total of 223 lions ? including those who had died of natural causes, had died in the region in the last five years (till March 2014). Twenty-seven more lions (including those which died of natural causes) have died after April 1 this year.

In its reply, the government further stated that meetings had been held with railway officials and long-term measures had been planned. Provisions had been made in this year's budget for fencing on both sides of the railway tracks and also for constructing underpasses.

Meanwhile, in another written reply to Vejalpur MLA Kishoresinh Chauhan, the state government stated that there were a total of 114 lions living outside the protected sanctuary.

This information was based on the 2010 census, the government said. Lions are found in Bhavnagar, the coastal areas, Lathi, Dhari and several parts of Amreli apart from Mitiyala and Girnar Sanctuary.

Two leopards found dead in Junagadh

Two leopards found dead in Junagadh
The Times of India

Two leopards have died unnatural deaths in two separate incidents reported from Junagadh district on Sunday.

According to sources, a leopard was found dead near 11kv power distribution line on outskirts of Umrethi village in Talala taluka. Preliminary investigation suggests that the leopard had died due to electrocution. Forest officials suspect that it may have tried to hunt a prey and touched the power supply line accidentally.

In another case, a leopard was found dead in a well in Langodara village in Maliya-Hatina taluka. Sources said that Govind Dharecha, a farmer, got suspicious after finding some bad smell emanating from the field. On inquiry, he saw the leopard's body in 100-feet deep well. Leopard may have fallen into the well two days ago.

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